Smart Shower Head – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Introduction

For our project on sustainability we decided to look at ways in which to save water whilst showering. The two main issues focused on are the wastage of water and heat before the user has even begun to shower and opportunities, during the shower, in which the water need not be running. Can we make significant reductions to the environmental impact of showering, without implementing considerable behavioural change?

Research

To decipher if simple sensors and coding can make a difference, a survey was taken outlining the showering behaviour of the average person. From this survey it was discovered that the average shower takes 48.1 seconds to get warm, taking in account the activities these people do whilst waiting for the shower to heat up, this means that the water is running, already hot, for 32.6 seconds unnecessarily. Once in the shower the participants were spending 2.1 minutes away from the water; again, letting in run without need.

Taking an average ml/s reading of various showers – a shower runs 77ml of water per second. From various energy and water supply companies it was found that 1kWh costs an average of 18.01p (in the Bristol area) and 1 litre of water will cost you 0.3p. Knowing that a 7.5kW shower uses 1.25kW in 10 minutes, it is possible to calculate just how much water and energy is wasted when we shower.

Over a year (12.2*365 = 4453) 4453 LITERS of water and (0.33*365 = 120.5) 120.5kWh of energy are being wasted by just ONE person wasting water whilst showering

Hypothesis

By halting the flow of water once it has reached the desired temperature, alerting the user that the shower is ready and disallowing the stream to continue when no one is underneath the showerhead; we can significantly reduce the amount of energy and water wasted whilst showering.

Experiment

We endeavoured to create a shower head that reduces energy and water consumption. To achieve this our product would stop the flow of water once it has reached the optimal temperature and only release water once a person is detected to be underneath the shower head.

fritz avec relay.jpg

This is the first look at our circuit. There are 4 main components;

  • Solenoid valve
  • Thermistor
  • Ultra-sonic sensor
  • Relay switch

The solenoid valve is the part that can control the flow of water, once power is passed through the component the valve opens. As ours is a 12v solenoid (Arduino Uno’s use 5v), we also plugged in a separate 12v power supply. The relay switch protects the Arduino from the extra power but bypassing it straight to the solenoid, this means that it does not affect any of the other components. Thus, controlling the solenoid valve without jeopardising the rest of the circuit. An ultra-sonic sensor can detect the distance of the nearest object, informing the s product that the user is within range. Finally, the thermistor measures the temperature of the water, which kickstarts the code.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udJDDaaR-6c

 

Here you can see our circuit working (in this video we have used a red LED to represent the solenoid valve for a clearer display). The valve stays open as the shower turns on – this is to allow time for the water to warm up before requiring the user to stand underneath it (no one wants to stand under freezing cold water). Once the thermistor recognised the required temperature has been met, the solenoid valve closes. After this point the water will only flow if the user is detected below the ultra-sonic sensor. Therefore, you can see in the video that the valve opens and closes as motion passes past the sensor. If the water runs cold again, the thermistor will sense this, the valve will open and water will flow.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1DxXLQrffU This shows the same circuit with the solenoid added, if you listen carefully you can hear the valve opening and closing.

circuit n prototyp (2)

In our display unit we angled the ultra-sonic sensor to represent the placement of the sensor in the actual product, which would be just below the shower head.

circuit n prototyp (1)

At this stage we had the all of the components working, apart from our solenoid valve was reading the wrong way around – we have a video of this, with the intention to switch the code later to have the correct solenoid function https://youtu.be/M8W7rpvQq4k

From this point we needed to change the code regarding the distance of the ultra-sonic reading, the solenoid function and the temperature gage (purely just for ease of presentation purposes).

https://youtu.be/a8tL8i9ux5U

Here is a flow chart of our code and the code itself

SMART SHOWER HEAD

https://create.arduino.cc/editor/liamhoppy/807fad4f-ae5a-41b3-a697-74c7fc421496/preview?embed

Analysis

Seeing as the most power consuming part of our circuit is the solenoid valve, we will base our calculations upon this. The Arduino itself and the sensors do not take up a lot of power, therefore, in comparison to the solenoid valve they are negligible.

From looking at the specs on the solenoid valve we are using, we can see that it takes 8.5 watts of power. The solenoid valve only consumes power when the valve is open (when someone is standing under the shower and when the water is running cold)

Taking results from the earlier background research we can analyse whether our product will save more energy than it consumes.

Average shower time – 10mins

Average time away from water – 2.1mins

Average time under water – 7.9mins

Average heating up time – 48.1s

Time spent with the solenoid open = (7.9*60) +48.1 = 522.1 seconds of 8.5 watts

Energy = Power x Time. Therefore 8.5 * 522.1 = 4437.85 Joules (J)

4437.85J = 0.0012327361111 kWh or 1.23×10^-3 kWhs

The wastage we are saving (in energy alone) is 0.33kWh per shower – therefore, adding in the energy cost of our product – it will save you 0.329kWhs per shower, 120kWhs per year and 480kWhs per household per year

To properly analyse the data we took from our earlier survey, we took a look at two specific candidates; one that wasted a lot of water and one that didn’t waste much at all. As this survey was anonymous the names have been fabricated.

cartoon lasyChloe

Age: 18-24

Sex: Female

Time taken for shower to warm up: 30 seconds

Activity done whilst waiting: Phone scrolling for 1 minute

Shower length: 17.5 minutes

Time spent out of the water: 5 minutes

Total time of water flow wasted: 5.5minutes (330 seconds)

77ml/s. (77*330 = 25410ml) 25.4l of water wasted per shower. Showering uses 1/480kWh in energy per second. (330*(1/480) = 0.69kWh per shower.

Year-long: (0.69*365 = 250.9kWh) (25.4*365 =9271l) (250.9*(18.01p per kWh) = 4518.7) (9271*(0.3p per litre) = 2781.3) (2781.3 + 4581.7 =  7363)

In a year, Chloe will save 259kWhs of energy, 9271 litres of water and £73.63 – Very cost and energy effective

middle ages lady


Jackie

Age: 45 – 54

Sex: Female

Time taken for shower to warm up: 120 seconds

Activity done whilst waiting: Brush teeth 2.5 minutes

Shower length: 9 minutes

Time spent out of the water: 0 minutes

Total time of water flow wasted: 30 seconds

77ml/s. (77*30= 107ml) 0.12l of water wasted per shower. Showering uses 1/480kWh in energy per second. (30*(1/480) = 0.06kWh per shower.

Year-long: (0.06*365 = 22.8kWh) (0.12*365 =43.8l) (22.8*(18.01p per kWh) = 410.6) (0.12*(0.3p per litre) = 0.036) (0.036+ 410.6 =  410.6)

In a year, Jackie will save 22.8Kwh of energy, 0.12 litres of water and £4.10 – Not very cost and energy effective

 Conclusion

Adding extra energy saving features to a shower head can dramatically reduce the environmental impact of taking a shower.

We would look to build this product into excising electric shower units; as they already contain solenoid valve and a power supply, only the shower head . Again, reducing the energy and material consumption of the product. It uses considerably less energy than the vast amount saved, especially in a house-hold which uses the shower 4 time daily.

 

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Making of the prototype – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Week beginning 16.04.18 (2)
To fully represent our concept, how it works and all of the included components we decided to do a prototype demonstration of the inner workings; we felt this would be much more informative to the audience than a closed shower head. Here is a quick sketch of how we intended to create our display.

sketch.JPG

As you can see, the thermistor is places just above the solenoid valve to read the temperature about to pass through. The ultra-sonic sensor is on an angle to represent the angle it would be in the final product – we have designed for the sensor to be situated just below the head of the shower pointing downwards but at a slight angle.
Our main board and all the fixings are all made from transparent Perspex, this makes it easy to see the water flow and all the components clearly.

making the prototype  (2).JPG

Bending the top allowed space for the bucket to be fastened securely and be properly supported by the base of the board also being bent for extra sturdiness.

Next, we fastened the shelf and supports for the pipe using a plastic welding solution which melts the desired pieces together – this is much securer than glue and is waterproof (essential for our design)

Smaller pieces of the board material hold the pipe slightly away from the back wall; this is to allow space for the solenoid valve and make sure the pipe does not move (as this could cause leakage!)

 

making the prototype  (6).JPG

After this it was just a case of setting our circuit up on the display unit, as our circuit was already all working and together this was a quick and simple task. Our intention is to improve the prototype by increasing the pressure flowing through the pipe (this gives for a more obvious change when the solenoid switches) and add a shower head to the base of the pipe – just to give a visual representation of the final product. We will also endeavour to create a more permanent solution to the water holder at the top.

making the prototype  (1).JPG

 

 

Moving our design forward we would add a circular strip of LEDs around the shower head. These would glow green and as time went on gradually turn red (like a timer). This would alert the user that they were spending too long in the shower which would change the behaviour of the user to save even more energy and water

led sketch.JPG

Building of the circuit – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Week beginning 16.04.18

Whilst waiting for our water proof thermistor to arrive, we used a normal thermistor to get the code and circuit working; with the hope that we could then just switch out the sensors to be appropriate for our prototype.

thermosister.JPG

It works by the resistance caused by the lack of heat. As the sensor gets hotter the resistance goes down.

thermosister serial read

As you can see here it tells us the resistance but not the temperature. Therefore, we endeavoured to find a code that also showed us the temperature as well as the resistance. We found this following this link http://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-Distance-Detector-with-a-Buzzer-and-LEDs/

temperature read

 

After a tutorial with our tutor we realised that our solenoid valve was, in fact, working but we were not using the right power supply. Therefore, once we tested it with the correct 12v it did work; our project reverted back to its original direction. As 12v is too powerful to run through an Arduino (it would just break it) a relay needed to be added. This was new territory for both of us so we tested out our circuit with an LED first; this way we wouldn’t have to risk breaking the Arduino with such high power.

aaaa

Here is us testing out our circuit with the LED. As you can see, when the thermistor is cold the LED is on (valve open: as our solenoid valve is ‘power to open’), once it is warm the valve closes then when the ultra-sonic sensor detects the presence of my hand the light turns back on – user can shower.

https://youtu.be/udJDDaaR-6c

 

We then switched the LED out with the solenoid valve and increased the power to 12v, this video of the solenoid valve working is a close-up so that you can hear the valve opening and closing.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1DxXLQrffU&feature=youtu.be

 

This is a fritzing diagram of how our circuit is set up, at this stage we have all the components we intend to have in our final model apart from the buzzer (to signify that the shower is warm enough)

fritz avec relay

 

And here is our first draft of working code

code 1

code 2

Choosing our sensors – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Week beginning 09.04.18

 

We started looking at the PIR sensors that were available to use through the university. Through our initial trials we found that although it was detecting motion, after a couple of seconds it said ‘motion ended’ even if we were still moving in front of the sensor. https://youtu.be/g2K7h4smBIM

Another project we found online (for a motion-controlled tap) used an ultra-sonic sensor (https://create.arduino.cc/projecthub/Akshit1729/measuring-distance-using-ultrasonic-sensor-0eaab2), which conveniently we already owned. This sensor, in our experiments, was much more sensitive to our movement and could measure the distance of the object or person. https://youtu.be/IZ1kJDWFa1s.

The next big test for our sensor was to see if it would detect water or not, ideally, we want it to not detect water as then we are not limited to where in the shower head the sensor could go. To test this, we did the most obvious thing we could think of and got in the shower. As you can see in this video, the water turning on does not affect the reading, whilst the hand moving towards the sensor changes the reading to approximately 50cm to 20cm.  https://youtu.be/tLphx6KO1P4

ultra-sound sensor.JPG

We then got the PIR sensor to work more accurately but covering the peripheral vision with some tape; however, we still had some problems with the sensor detecting no movement when there was some.

PIR sensor with cone.JPG

Still exploring our options, we did a ‘shower test’ on the PIR sensor, even though we thought we would use the ultra-sonic (due to the accuracy of the readings). As PIR sensors work off detecting surfaces AND heat, it is unsuitable for our project as it detected the heat movement from the hot shower. https://youtu.be/H_f75u9_2HI

 

For the valve, to stop the water flow, we looked at several options. From our research earlier in the project we knew we wanted to get a solenoid valve the only question was which one. Speaking to an expert on ‘Solenoid Valve World’ he recommended a 12v plastic solenoid valve, this was perfect for us as we had previously seen many projects using this kind of valve. The data-sheet for the valves they had available can be found here http://www.solenoid-valve.world/image/data/PDF/115BC.pdf . Although some of the more heavy-duty valves would’ve performed better, they were out of the price range needed to keep this is fairly affordable product.

This is the valve we chose. It is ideal for our project as it is a simple, power on opens the valve; therefore, we can easily see ahead to how we would code this using our ultra-sonic sensor.

It is a 12v sensor so also does not require too much power.

 

 

solenoid valve

 

Another feature of our design is to have the water run (without anyone needing to be underneath) until the water is warm enough. For this we needed a waterproof temperature sensor. These are very standard components so deciding which one to go with was fairly easy, requiring it was waterproof and compatible with Arduino.

temp sensor

Research – Will it be sustainable? – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Week beginning 29.03.2018

To gather data on how much energy our design would potentially save, we looked at a middle range electric shower.shower

This shower runs at 7.5kW. To find out how much electricity generally costs we compared a few different energy companies, putting in my address.

British Gas: 15.26p per kWh

EDF energy: 21.52p per kWh

e-On: 18.01p per kWh

Therefore, the average price in my area is £18.30 per kWh. Therefore, to shower for 10minutes (using this shower) would cost 22.5p; if you assume that the user showers every day, they’re spending £82.13 on showering every year and using 456.3 kWhs or energy.

The two main features of our product are turning off when it’s warm enough, alerting the user that they can get into the shower and the shower turning off when they’re not underneath. So, the opportunities for saving energy come from

  1. Unnecessarily running the water for longer than needed before the shower
  2. Running the water when not underneath the water.

 

For benefit 1 I decided to collect data from various people (who had 7.5kWh showers) – A lot of people didn’t know how long it took for their shower to warm up so for those participants I used the average of a few people I have asked.

My shower 37 seconds

Anjs shower 15 seconds

Alex Ns shower 35 seconds

Harry Trett – 15 seconds

 

 

From my survey I will find out:

How long it takes people’s showers to get hot

How long they spend waiting for it to get hot – thus, finding out how long they are waiting over the time it takes their shower to turn on

How long they spend in the shower

How much time they spend away from the water

We have also taken people’s ages and genders which will give us our target market. (this will be based on the people who would save the most amount of energy/water)
From the data we took from 64 participants of our survey we got some useful data about how much time people are spending with (wasted) water running.

SM results

Taking out the anomalies from our data – for example, some participants stated that their shower took more than 5 minutes to get warm, we concluded that this was an extreme case. We found that the average shower takes 48.1 seconds to get warm.

 An important factor to our product is alerting the user when the shower is warm, this is because a lot of people carry out an activity whilst they are waiting for the shower to warm up and therefore, could be unnecessarily running the shower warm. Considering the time it takes for the shower to warm up and the average time people spend doing something else whilst waiting; we concluded that on average the user will run hot water unnecessarily for 32.6 seconds.

Measuring how much time people believed they spend away from the water during a shower – this means time spent shampooing, shaving etc… – came to 2.1mins away from water (including everyone’s results). We the arranged our results to create different groups of people.

First, we removed all the participants who spent no time away from the water. We did this as these people would not be part of our target market as they, already, were not wasting a lot of water. After doing this the results were showing an average of 2.6mins away from water without the 0 values.

Then, just taking a look at those who spent a lot of time away from the water as these people were wasting a lot of water and would see a greater benefit from our product. 3.9mins away from water, only looking at those who spent more than a minute.

To work out how much water would be being saved I did an experiment to find out the flow of water in showers. This was to catch the water coming out of the shower for 5 seconds and measure how much had come out.

We did this in 4 different showers

Uni showers: 500ml in 5 secs (100ml/s)

Lizzie’s shower: 270ml in 5secs (54ml/s)

Liam’s shower: 320ml in 5 secs (64ml/s)

Emily’s shower: 440ml in 5 secs (88ml/s)

Our average: 382.5ml in 5 secs (77ml/s)

 

From this website (https://www.unitedutilities.com/faq/bills-payments/what-does-a-litre-or-cubic-metre-of-water-cost/) I found out that water costs around £3 for 1000 litres, therefore 1 litre costs 0.3p

From this website https://www.sust-it.net/electric-showers.php I found that a 7.5kW shower will use 1.25kWhs per 10 mins. Therefore, per second a shower is costing (10mins = 600secs) 1.25/600 = 1/480 kWh, 1kWh = 18.01p therefore, 1second of showering costs 0.04p IN ENERGY COST

 

Combining our knowledge of the flow of water from a shower, energy prices, water prices and human behaviours we can work out how much of a sustainable benefit our product will have.

As discovered earlier, on average we run hot water at the beginning of our shower for 32.6secs, a shower generally runs at 77ml/s; therefore, at this stage we are wasting 2510.2ml of water or 2.5l – this costs the user 0.75p per shower. Assuming a 4 persons household where everyone showers once a day (0.75*365) *4 = £10.95 a year in running water before showering

As it cost 0.04p of energy to heat the shower per second, (0.04*32.6) it costs the user 1.3p in electricity to unnecessarily run hot water at the beginning of the shower. Again, if in a 4 persons house hold everyone is showering once a day. (1.3*365) *4 = 1898, the average household is spending £18.98 in heating the wasted water at the beginning of the shower a year – Looking at a more environmentally conscious figure this is using (32.6*(1/480) = 0.067) 0.067kWh per person per shower (0.067*365) *4) and therefore 99.3kWhs annually for a 4-person household

Looking at the average person (not someone who wastes a lot of water in the shower) 2.1minutes is spent away from the water per shower. Applying the same calculations, we can work out the wastage there. 2.1mins = 126seconds. At 77ml/s there would be (77*126=9702) 9702ml of wasted water or 9.7l (9.7*0.3 = 2.91) which will cost the user 2.9p per shower in water costs alone

Again, just looking at the average person, 126seconds of wasted water flow use (126*(1/480) = 0.2625) uses 0.26kWhs of electricity, costing 4.7p per shower in energy costs.

Let’s add this all up for one person in a year.

2510.2ml + 9702ml = 12212.2ml (12.2l) per shower

0.067kWh + 0.26kWh = 0.33kWh per shower

Over a year (12.2*365 = 4453) 4453 LITERS of water and (0.33*365 = 120.5) 120.5kWh of energy are being wasted by just ONE person wasting water whilst showering

This will be costing them ((4453*0.3) + (120.5*18.01) = 3506.105) £35.1

Applying this to the average house hold of 4 people wastes £140, 17812 litres of water and 482kWh of energy.

That’s how much money, water and electricity our product will save; however, it does use some electricity itself.

Seeing as the most power consuming part of our circuit is the solenoid valve, we will base our calculations upon this. The Arduino itself and the sensors do not take up a lot of power, therefore, in comparison to the solenoid valve (for now) the are negligible.

From looking at the specs on the solenoid valve we are using, we can see that it takes 8.5 watts of power.

 

soleniod spec

 

Obviously, there in only 12v passing through the solenoid valve when it is open (when someone is standing under the shower and when the water is running cold)

Average shower time – 10mins

Average time away from water – 2.1mins

Average time under water – 7.9mins

Average heating up time – 48.1s

Time spent with the solenoid open = (7.9*60) +48.1 = 522.1 seconds of 8.5 watts

Energy = Power x Time. Therefore 8.5 * 522.1 = 4437.85 Joules (J)

Using a converter (https://www.rapidtables.com/convert/energy/Joule_to_kWh.html) we can now work out how many kWhs our product would use.

4437.85J = 0.0012327361111 kWh or 1.23×10^-3 kWhs

The wastage we are saving (in energy alone) is 0.33kWh per shower – therefore, adding in the energy cost of our product – it will save you 0.329kWhs per shower, 120kWhs per year and 480kWhs per household per year

Yes, it will be a sustainable design that helps the wastage of both water and electricity and changes the behaviour of the user.

Limbs and things trip.

Week beginning 5.03.18

 

Looking around- When going to Limbs and Things we where shown a couple of the different trainers that the produce. They specialize in creating trainers for student nurses and doctors.

The first of the two that where focused on was the Abdominal trainer  which was a torso that skin could be removed to put different growths inside. So that the students could be tested on abdomen checks finding different growths in different places.

It also can make different sound effects  that would suggest different things depending on the sound. One thing that was commented on was that the kidney set up was really hard to use and they couldn’t get any feedback or even do the right checks on it. It was said that putting to much pressure through the kidney could cause a fair amount of discomfort if done wrong and at worse damage it.

One of the biggest problems that seem to be with this trainer is that the lecturer/trainer has to take the false skin of to change the growth. There is also that there is no feedback that would help the students know when they had done it right or wrong, meaning it was all done to the lecturer to tell whether they had done it right.

20180309_142350

The other thing is trainer is fitting a catheter to a patient. This is a fairly simple trainer that you put the catheter into the patient and know when you have dont it right by the fact liquid starts coming from it.

This could be made better by putting more feedback into it by showing discomfort of the patient when its being done wrong so that to begin with the trainee knows when they have done it right and if they are have done it wrong they would get used to a bad reaction so that if/when it happens with a real person for the first time they dont get as flustered.

Initial Questions for Shower Head – Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins

Week beginning 19.03.18

We had decided to focus on solving the problem of water wastage during showering. To start we made an action plan of all the necessary research we would need to collate to make sure our idea was viable. This will include timing various people in the shower and asking certain questions;

  • What was the total time spent in the shower?
  • What was the total time spent ‘away’ from the water?
  • How long does the water take to warm up?

The concept of our proposed project is a shower head that turns off, or reduces the water flow, when the user has stepped away from the stream. Before even speaking to members of the public, we were aware that most people wait for a while for the water to heat up before getting into the shower; this is why we need to ask the question of how long the water takes to warm up so there can be a ‘time’ delay before the user needs to be underneath the shower head.

The main issue we are expecting to come across is how to restrict the water flow, we want to avoid a back log of water or just simply redirecting the flow as this would not save any energy. A quick brainstorm of various methods left us with a few ideas that stood out.

what valve type

The main ones we are considering is the wind up tap mechanism…

wind up tap

Or the mini solenoid valve (which can be controlled via Arduino)

 

first soleniod

 

We eventually decided on going for a solenoid valve due to the number of previous projects we found using this valve. This meant that we could access suitable code and get inspiration from the other coders.

https://www.bc-robotics.com/tutorials/controlling-a-solenoid-valve-with-arduino/

Deciding on the Water Saving Shower Head. (Lizzie Spinks & Liam Hopkins)

Week beginning 12.03.18

From further thinking into our kidney palpitation equipment, we realised that our lack of medical knowledge was becoming a large hindrance to our progression.

Starting to look towards the sustainability brief we began to brainstorm some ideas and problems we could solve. To begin this process we looked at what costs a household the most energy, two of the most unnecessarily expensive household products seemed to be the shower and the fridge. A lot of this was because of time wastage. Such as, leaving the fridge door open and leaving the shower head on when the user is not directly using it.

We found this article comparing the prices of electric, gas or oil showers, http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/experts/article-2176415/Is-cheaper-run-electric-power-shower-whats-difference.html. This gave us a great insight into just how expensive showering can be (and potentially how much energy could be saved).

“A power shower could use around 15litres/min, so a 10 min shower would use 150litres of mains water, heated from around 8°C to 30°C.

Gas would cost 23p to heat this water, Using an oil boiler, this would be around 28p, and if using electricity (Immersion heater), the cost would be 46p.”

 

From a small calculation, judging on one of our estimations of our shower timings, we worked out that controlling the water flow could amount to saving almost £50 a year.

This is taking a 15min shower, spending 5 min away from the water on each shower. Thus, (0.46 x 365) x 0.3

 

We also found out from http://www.savewithsrp.com/advice/10badenergyhabits.aspx that on average a person will spend more than 10 hours a year looking in their fridge deciding what to eat. Furthering on from this article we found that The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida suggested that this could waste enough energy to run a dishwasher 20 times http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/a19095/refrigerator-door-wastes-energy/.

 

Being careful not to funnel our ideas too soon, we had a quick look at a solar panel that could track the light, generating maximum possible energy output.  However, after a brief look into this we found that someone else had already done the necessary research to realise this was not viable. We found out from http://www.alternative-energy-tutorials.com/solar-power/solar-panel-orientation.html that the sensors needed to track the light need a large flat space, not usually available in a household. Similarly, if being used in a business setting, to add motorised movement to a large enough solar panel is also not cost effective.

 

After a quick pros and cons list

IMG_2898[1]

we decided to go with the shower idea and have begun to look into ways in which we can save water when showering.

 

Starting looking into the Renal Ballottement Training Aid (Lizzie Spinks and Liam Hopkins)

Week beginning 05.03.18

 

After deciding to go with aiding the training of renal ballottement, we started to look what sensors we would need. First we needed to properly understand the process and how it works, from this video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n75RgtItLcg&app=desktop) we gathered we would need at least 2 sensors to correctly monitor how the student was performing. These sensors would be a movement sensor and pressure sensors.

Our plan was to make a synthetic kidney that gives feedback to both the student and the tutor on how the procedure is being performed, this kidney would be designed to go into the already existing abdominal examination trainer  abdominal examination trainer.PNG

The movement sensor needs to be no more than a simple vibration, to check the student is stimulating the kidney enough for it to surface. This video shows how others have connected these kinds of sensors to an Arduino https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sSIBM9ZEM0Y&app=desktop

Initially we were going to just have ¾ individual pressure sensors in the prosthetic kidney as it is fairly small so a hand pressing down should activate one of these. These would fit into the kidney like so,

img_2897.jpg

However, from speaking to our peers within the course, we learnt of something called a FlexiForce which has a much greater range of where pressure can be applied, and can be manipulated into different shapes.

felxi force.jpg

 

We also considered the idea of the kidney relaying information to the tutor via Bluetooth. We would then have to have a look into processing to display the findings in an interesting way to give live feedback.