Week 9 – Limbs and Things Final Products – Thomas, Emily and Lukasz

Vibration Model Test:

Made sure the vibration module could detect the vibration of the plasters being removed from the model and that it would output the sound at the appropiate time (Sound for when the bandages are removed too slowly)


Pressure Model Test:

The pressure sensor should be able to detect the pressure applied to the surface, beneath the model. The servo attached should also react with the pressure and “twitch” the model visably.


Swipe Model Test:

The photoresistors should be open to light and be able to be swiped smoothly. There should not be any interferance either


All the codes combined to work on a single Arduino Uno:

Link to code



By ThomasElwes, Emily Mortimore and Lukasz Staszewski

Week 8 – Limbs and Things Sensor Testing – Thomas, Emily and Lukasz

Vibration sensor:

Plasters are meant to be remove quickly to prevent further pain to patent. Vibration sensors will be used to detect if plasters were removed correctly and efficiently, with the least pain possible (Vibrations made)



Vibration sensor needs to be tested with plasters/bandages to see if it reacts to the vibration of removing the plasters/bandages.

Pressure sensor:

If too much pressure is applied to a wound for too long this also causes more pain. Pressure sensor could be used for when pressure to a wound is applied to a wound and pain is exhibited by a servo shaking to represent the pain the patient is in.


Untitled Sketch 2_bb

The improvement for this code/circuit would be to add a servo to simulate twitching to represent the pain of the patient.

Wound cleaning:

Wounds are meant to be cleaned from the least messy part of the wound to the most to avoid any contamination or spread of bacteria. Having three photoresistors having to be swiped in the correct direction with a visual aid to say if the student did it correctly could help.

Button lock examples were investigated to help with this code. However, I found that the use of a “switchcase” “if “statements could prove more useful for this sensor.

First Code Attempt (Switch Case):


This code unfortunately didn’t agree with the Arduino circuit. The reason for its failure could be that it was waiting to too many values to become active so stayed in the same state.

Second Code Attempt (“if” Statements):


This code worked compared to the first attempt. Using similar parts of the first code, like the use of “checks”, “true” and using one “switchcase” at the end for the result instead of the entire code.


Swipe Circuit_bb

The main improvement would be to simplify and condense the code as well as adjust the sensitivity of the photoresistors by testing different resistors.

Blood Level Sensor:

Used to detect the level of blood and how much is lost. So using a liquid level sensor we could visualise what percentage of blood (liquid) is in the patient (model)



This code and circuit needs another way to visualise the loss of blood (e.g. LEDs? Sound?). Also, the display needs to be correct as it displays the levels in hundreds of per cent.




Smazara Uno Tutorials


By Thomas Elwes, Emily Mortimore and Lukasz Staszewski

Week 6 – Sustainability or Limbs and Things Project – Thomas, Emily, Lukasz

Sustainability Project Ideas:

-Developing on the Energy Idea (Energy – Have a monitor (LEDs) which says which room of the house uses the most energy (Traffic light system). A motion sensor is used within each room combined with the energy sensor to produce a rating for people in the room + Energy used.)

Consumption per household increased between 2015 and 2016 by 2.1 per cent

Consumption per person increased by 2.3 per cent from 2015 to 2016

From primary research of taking readings from a house to see the energy consumption from plugs in the walls.


-If energy usage is surpassed within a certain room the wifi within that room the connection would be reduced. One way to do this would be to use a Faraday cage. This would block the wifi signals entering the room, so the challenge would be to see if the faraday cage could be controlled to various levels to control wifi strength. However certain legalities arise with faraday cages with jamming devices being illegal. Yet faraday cages are legal, though preferably the phone signal shouldn’t be blocked in case of emergency


Limbs and Things Ideas:

Cancer Lump Detection – Having a sensor inside the models to represent cancer lumps, so that when they’re felt the lecturer can see if the student has diagnosed the lump correctly

Flex sensors – Could be used as an input if some body part is moved in the incorrect direction. Outputting a sound to indicate the patient is in pain

Load cells – Will detect the amount of pressure applied and can be used as an input. It could be used to be sure students don’t apply to much pressure to a certain area of the body, and a output of sound or movement could be implemented

Injections – If a needle must be injected into a part of the body a sensor can sense how deep the needles is going, to prevent any pain/discomfort – Touch sensor, Digital touch sensor







By Thomas Elwes, Emily Mortimore, Lukasz Staszewski

Week 5 – Sustainability or Limbs and Things Project – Thomas, Emily and Lukasz

Sustainability Project Ideas:

Water Meter – Attachments for your showers, taps and bath taps that measure how much water is used and visualise it for the users to see – Laser sensor, Moisture sensor, Liquid Level Sensor


Solar – A robot which moves to be in direct contact of the sunlight – Solar panels, Motors +Wheels


Energy – Have a monitor (LEDs) which says which room of the house uses the most energy (Traffic light system). A motion sensor is used within each room combined with the energy sensor to produce a rating for people in the room + Energy used.


Temperature – Sensor that stays outside to measure the temperature and humidity and suggests if the house should be heated or not – Temperature and humidity sensor module


Limbs and Things Ideas:

Movement – If a certain part of the body needs to be moved carefully without sudden movements a balance and/or motion sensor could set off an LED or sound when it something moves incorrectly – Balance meter, Movement Sensor

Injections – If a needle must be injected into a part of the body a sensor can sense how deep the needles is going, to prevent any pain/discomfort – Touch sensor, Metal touch sensor






By Thomas Elwes, Emily Mortimore and Lukasz Staszewski




Week 4 – Opening and Closing Door – TWE

The chosen way to demonstrate the sound sensor module and the Bluetooth sensor was a doorbell and door. When the doorbell activates and makes a sound it’s detected by the sound sensor module, which in turn activates the Bluetooth sensor to send a notification to a Bluetooth device (in this case a mobile phone). The phone displays that a sound has been detected and gives the option whether to activate the servo (or door) or not.

Arrange Arduino and Breadboard as shown:


Equipment Required:

-1x Arduino UNO

-1x Breadboard

-1x Sound Sensor Module

-3x 2200 ohm Resistor

-1x Bluetooth Sensor

-4x Cables (Female – Male)

-.11x Cables

Input the code below:


attach – Attach the Servo variable to a pin. Note that in Arduino 0016 and earlier, the Servo library supports only servos on only two pins: 9 and 10.

detach – Detach the Servo variable from its pin. If all Servo variables are detached, then pins 9 and 10 can be used for PWM output withl analogWrite(). This command detaches the servo from the circuit

These commands were used because the servo would move unexpectedly due to its sensitivity alongside the sensitivity of the

Week 3 – Project Ideas – TWE

Ideas that integrate both a Sound sensor and a Bluetooth sensor:

Sound Sensor = Input

Bluetooth Sensor = Output/Input

LED Display Screen = Output

Servo = Output


Game – Make as much noise as you can to trigger something in the phone. A score board of noise possibly.


Sound detector – Shows the sound levels visually and on a phone e.g. Baby Monitor?


Door Bell Detector – If door bell sound is detected it will send a message to a Bluetooth device, and from your device can choose to open or keep the door closed.


Using the “if” statement to send data via Bluetooth to trigger a function on the phone or other Bluetooth device. For example, making a low-level sound triggers one action while a higher level of sound will trigger another action, and so on and so forth.

The “if” statement checks for a condition and executes the proceeding statement or set of statements if the condition is ‘true’.

So if (sound > 31) {

digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);


if (sound < 31) {

digitalWrite(led1, LOW);




Idea 1:

Have a small object with the sound sensor within which flickers to the different sound levels and sends a message to a Bluetooth device, like a text message at different sizes to show the sound levels or a certain image to represent the level of sound

Idea 2:

Make a loud enough sound into the sound sensor module, which will send data to a Bluetooth speaker, which will make a noise back at you. Certain catchphrases for each level of sound.

Week 2 – Sound Monitor – TWE

Using certain code to allow certain LEDs to light up at certain sound levels to be used as a sound monitor.
Different LEDS Lighting up depend on the sound level:
Arrange Arduino and Breadboard as shown:

Sound Monitor Diagram
Equipment Required:
-1x Arduino UNO
-1x Breadboard
-5x LEDs
-5x 560 ohm Resistor
-11x Cables
-4x Cables (Female – Male)
-1x Sound Sensor Module

Input the codde below:


Once the code is uploaded bring up the serial plotter and check the numbers shown. This code has the range from 0-50, so adjust the Sound sensor to around 30 as the first value shown is “if (sound >31).

You can change the values in the code, but it means they must the match the sensitivity.

The const keyword in “const int” stands for constant. It is a variable qualifier that modifies the behavior of the variable, making a variable “read-only”. This means that the variable can be used just as any other variable of its type, but its value cannot be changed. You will get a compiler error if you try to assign a value to a const variable.

Constants defined with the const keyword obey the rules of variable scoping that govern other variables. This, and the pitfalls of using #define, makes the const keyword a superior method for defining constants and is preferred over using #define.

Sound Monitor 2







Week 1 – Sound Sensor Module – TWE

Sound sensor moduleSound sensor module 2

The sound sensor module provides an easy way to detect sound and is generally used for detecting sound intensity. This module can be used for security, switch, and monitoring applications. Its accuracy can be easily adjusted for the convenience of usage. It uses a microphone which supplies the input to an amplifier, peak detector and buffer. When the sensor detects a sound, it processes an output signal voltage which is sent to a microcontroller then performs necessary processing.

Sound sensor module has 2 outputs. AO – analog output, real-time output voltage signal of the microphone. DO – the digital output depends on the sound intensity and the threshold that has been set. (Arduino® VMA309 A0 A0 GND G +5 V + D0).

Voltage – 3.3-5 VDC
Outputs – One analogue + One digital output
Fixation – 1 x mounting screw hole (3 mm) 2 indicator
LEDs – 1 power indicator + 1 comparator output indicator frequency
Response – 50 Hz – 20 KHz impedance
– 2.2 kΩ sensitivity
– 48-66 dB operating


Parameter Value
VCC 5 Vdc from your Arduino
Ground GND from your Arduino
Out Connect to Digital Input Pin
Power LED Illuminates when power is applied
Sound Detection LED Illuminates when sound is detected
Sound Set Point Adjust CW = More Sensitive
CCW = Less Sensitive

Blinking LED reacting to Sound:

Arrange Arduino and Breadboard as shown;

Sound sensor module Diagram

Equipment Required:

-1x Arduino UNO

-1x Breadboard

-1x LED

-1x 560 ohm Resistor

-8x Cables

-1x Sound Sensor Module


Once code is uploaded bring up the Serial Monitor or plotter and check the numbers. Adjust the sound sensor pin to the desired sensitivity. Around 500+ usually is an optimal sensitivity for this project.

Sound Blinker 2